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sexta-feira, 6 de junho de 2008

COLAGEM...

A colagem foi uma técnica iniciada por Picasso (1881-1973), em 1912 com a obra Natureza Morta com Cadeira de Palha.
Definição

A colagem como procedimento técnico tem uma história antiga, mas sua incorporação na arte do século XX, com o cubismo, representa um ponto de inflexão na medida em que liberta o artista do jugo da superfície. Ao abrigar no espaço do quadro elementos retirados da realidade - pedaços de jornal e papéis de todo tipo, tecidos, madeiras, objetos etc. -, a pintura passa a ser concebida como construção sobre um suporte, o que dificulta o estabelecimento de fronteiras rígidas entre pintura e escultura. Fruteira e copo (1912) de Georges Braque (1882-1963), é considerada uma das primeiras colagens da arte moderna. A partir desse momento, a técnica vai ser largamente empregada em diferentes escolas e movimentos artísticos, com sentidos muito variados. Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) vai encontrar no novo recurso um instrumento de experimentação inigualável, que tem o seu início com Copo e garrafa de Suze (1912), parte de uma série em que são utilizados papéis e desenhos a carvão. O uso dos papéis colados abrem as pesquisas cubistas em novas direções. A utilização cada vez mais livre de materiais heterogêneos, não só papéis, dá origem a objetos tridimensionais e relevos. Nessa direção, Juan Gris (1887-1927), outro grande nome do cubismo que trabalhou exaustivamente com colagens, vai definir a pintura como "espécie de arquitetura plana com cor". As colagens de Braque, Picasso e Gris despertam o interesse de artistas dos círculos cubistas mais próximos e mais distantes. Albert Gleizes (1881-1953), Louis Marcoussis (1883-1941), André Derain (1880-1954), Robert Delaunay (1885-1941) e Sonia Delaunay-Terk (1885-1979), entre outros nomes do circuito parisiense, passam a fazer uso de colagens em suas composições. Na escultura - também realizadas por Braque e Picasso - os trabalhos de Alexander Archipenko (1887-1964), Jacques Lipchitz (1891-1973), Vladimir Tatlin (1885-1953), Pablo Gargallo (1881-1934) e Henri Laurens (1885-1954) são exemplos da articulação entre superfícies e volumes, em consonância com o programa das colagens cubistas.

Os novos princípios de composição inaugurados pelas colagens encontram seguidores em todo o mundo, o que não significa falar em generalização uniforme, mas em interpretações distintas de um mesmo procedimento. Na Itália, um diálogo cerrado com o meio francês leva os artistas reunidos em torno do futurismo a praticar colagens em sentido cubista estrito. Um traço destacado da produção futurista - em Umberto Boccioni (1882-1916) e Gino Severini (1883-1966), por exemplo - diz respeito à atenção dedicada ao mundo moderno, sobre o qual os artistas se debruçam sistematicamente, por meio de comentários que fazem à guerra, à tecnologia, à velocidade, à violência etc. Os trabalhos de Giacomo Balla (1871 ou 1874-1958) e Luigi Russolo (1885-1947), por sua vez, apontam em outra direção, rumo às pesquisas abstratas. Na Rússia de Kazimir Malevitch (1878-1935) e Tatlin, as conquistas cubistas adquirem novas feições. As colagens aderem às tendências construtivas em pauta, ganhando destaque os princípios de composição propriamente ditos e o poder expressivo dos materiais, por exemplo nos "relevos pictóricos" de Tatlin. Diverso é o resultado da técnica no interior do movimento dada. Em Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968) e Francis Picabia (1879), nota-se uma radicalização dos procedimentos usuais da colagem, numa clara recusa ao que eles consideram a rigidez cubista. Nos trabalhos de Kurt Schwitters (1887-1948), por seu turno, a ênfase recai sobre elementos e materiais diversos, que encontram seu exemplo mais acabado nas obras Merz (1919). "A pintura Merz", diz ele, "não utiliza só a cor e a tela, o pincel e a paleta, senão todos os materiais percebidos pelos olhos e todas as ferramentas necessárias". Com Max Ernst (1891-1976), ampliam-se as possibilidades da colagem. Nota-se aí uma articulação imprevista dos elementos e uma abertura mais direta ao irracional, no que será seguido pelos surrealistas, que levam ao limite a idéia de associação de elementos díspares e de construção de uma "realidade irreal", por exemplo, em Joán Miró (1893-1983), Yves Tanguy (1900-1955), René Magritte (1898-1967), André Masson (1896-1987)e Salvador Dalí (1904-1989). Diversa é a trilha seguida pelos artistas ligados a Bauhaus, quando empregam a colagem e a montagem como parte de seu programa pedagógico. Distinto também o sentido que Henri Matisse (1869-1954) vai atribuir aos papéis colados que realizou na obra de maturidade, em que a pesquisa da forma liga-se diretamente à exploração da cor.

Nas artes plásticas brasileiras, as colagens foram testadas por diferentes artistas, por exemplo, nas obras de Carlos Scliar (1920-2001), Piza (1928), Guignard (1896-1962), Jorge de Lima (1893-1953) e Athos Bulcão (1918). São elas também que criam as condições de possibilidade dos relevos espaciais de Hélio Oiticica (1937-1980) e casulos e bichos de Lygia Clark (1920-1988).


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